Improvement in food resources notes | Class 9th | CBSE

Notes of Chapter"Improvement in Food Resources" from class 9 Science CBSE 

It is an essential organic substance necessary for the existence of all living organisms. It provides nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals for their growth.

Crops: When the same types of plants are grown on a large scale it is called crops.

  1. Cereals crops: These plants are cultivated to fulfill daily energy requirements. Eg. wheat, rice, maize, etc.
  2. Oilseed crops: These plants provide us with the necessary fats and oils. Eg. Soyabean, Mustard, Sunflower, Groundnut, etc.
  3. Fodder Crops: These are grown as food for the livestock. Eg. Oats, Berseem, Grows, etc.
  4. Pulses Crops: These plants are cultivated to fulfill protein requirements. Eg. Gram, Moong daal, etc.
  5. Vegetable species and fruit crops: These are grown to fulfill the requirement variety of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, etc. for eg. Turmeric, Onion, etc.

Classification of crops:

  1. Rabi Crops: These are grown in winter and the dry season from the month of November to April, For eg. wheat, gram, pea, etc
  2. Kharif Crops: These crops are grown in the rainy season from the month of June to October. Eg. Paddy, Maize, etc.

Improvement in crop yield:

  • This practice involved in farming to increase crop production can be divided into four stages:
  1. The first step is the selection of seeds and planting.
  2. The 2nd stage is the watering of the crop plants.
  3. The 3rd stage is the protection of growing plants.
  4. The 4th stage is harvesting crops from field.
  • Crop yield can be classified:
  1. Crop variety improvement 
  2. Crop production management
  3. Crop protection management

Crop Varieties improvement:

  • Its main aim is high yield under different conditions in different areas.
  • For this farmers should be provided with the good quality seed of a particular variety.
  • These seeds are disease resistant.
  • Response to fertilizers, product quality, and high yield.

Ways for improvement in crop varieties:

Hybridization: GMC(Genetically Modified Crops). It is the crossing between two genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new type[Hybrid] HYV. This crossing is of following types:
  • Inter Varietal: This cross is made up of 2 plants belonging to varieties of plants.
  • Inter Specific: This cross is made between the plants belonging to different species.
  • Inter Genetic: This cross is made between the plants belonging to different genes.

*GMC[Genetically Modified Crops]: 

The manipulation of crops and plants for increasing their yield, improving quality, etc. are done by GMC. For eg. B.T Cotton, B.T Rice, B.T Tomato, etc.

Factors of crop variety Improvement:

  1. Higher Yield
  2. Improved quality
  3. Biotic and abiotic resistance
  4. change in maturity duration
  5. Wider adaptability

Crop production management:

Crop production management includes the management of nutrients, irrigation, and cropping pattern.
Nutrient requirement:
  1. Animal and plants require nutrients for their development.
  2. Nutrients are inorganic elements that are supplied to the plant by air, water, and soil.
There are 16 nutrient essential for the plant:
Nutrients are divided into 2 categories-
  1. Macronutrients: It includes 6 nutrients which are required by the plant in large quantity. Eg. N, P, S, Mg, Ca and K.
  2. Micronutrient: It includes 7 nutrients which are required by plants in smaller quantity. eg. Zn, Cu, Cl, Fe, B, Mg
- The deficiency of these nutrients causes diseases in plants.
- Natural Fertiliser
An organic substance formed by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste.
- Manure:- 
  1. Compost and Vermicompost
  2. Green manure
Compost and vermicompost:
  1. The process in which from waste material like cow dung, vegetable waste, domestic waste, sewage waste,. etc. are decomposed in a pit is called composting.
  2. The preparation of compost by using earthworms and animals refuse is called vermicompost.
Green Manure:
  1. Some plants like Sumhemp are grown into the soil before the swing of crop seeds. These green plants turn into green manure.
Advantages of Manure:
  1. Manure exercises soil with nutrients and organic matter called humus.
  2. It increases soil fertility
  3. It increases the water-holding capacity of the soil.
  4. Manure helps in recycling of form waste

The commercially produced organic or inorganic compounds containing one or more essential plant nutrient which are used to increase fertility are called fertilizers.
-They supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Advantages of fertilizers:

  1. Easily available, easy to store and use.
  2. They are used to ensure good vegetation growth of leaves, branches, and flowers which give rise to a healthy plant.
  3. They contain a high amount of nutrients.
  1. They provide short term benefits
  2. Continue use of fertilizers can destroy soil fertility.
Irrigation: The process of supplying water to crop plants in the field by the means of canals, wells, tube-wells, etc is called irrigation.
  • Agricultural practices in India are mainly dependent on rainfall.
  • The success of crops depends upon timely monsoon.


  • It is the condition that occurs because of scarcity or irregular distribution of rain.
  • Some commonly used irrigation system depending on the kinds of water resources available for agricultural purposes are the following:-
Well: They are constructed where the groundwater is present. They are of 2 types:
Dug wells: water collected from water-bearing strata 
Tube Wells: water can be drawn from deeper Streater using pumps.
Canals: They extensively used in methods of receiving water from the river and  reservoir of dams
Tanks: These are small storage reservoir which catches and store the runoff of a smaller catchment area.

Modern Technique:

Rainwater harvesting: It is collected into the ground by digging tubewells etc.

Watershed development: small check dams are built to increase groundwater level the purpose of the check dam is to stop the rainwater from flowing and reduce soil erosion.

Advantages of Irrigation: 

  1. Cultivation of crops can be done the whole year.
  2. It is the oldest agricultural technique adopted by humans to supply water in crop fields.
Cropping patterns: crops can be grown in different ways.

Mixed Cropping: It includes growing 2 or more crop on the piece of land eg: wheat, gram, etc

Advantages of Mixed cropping:

  1. Improves soil fertility
  2. change of pest interpretation is reduced.
  3. The risk of total crop failure due to uncertain monsoon.
Intercropping: It involves two or more crops on the same field in a definite pattern eg.- soybean and maizes.

Advantages of intercropping:

  1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.
  2. It ensures the main utilization of nutrients.
  3. Supplied and gives better returns.
Crop rotation: It involves growing different crops on a piece of land in a preplanned succession.
- It means one crop is grown in that field and after its harvesting, a second crop is grown in that field.
- This can also follow the 3rd crop.

Advantages of crop rotation:

  1. It helps in replenishment of soil fertility
  2. It enhances the production from a single field.

Crop production management:

In fields, crops have to be protected from weed, include management of nutrients, irrigation and cropping pattern.

- At various threats to the crop are the following:
Weeds: The weeds are unwanted plants in the cultivated field. They compete with the crop for the food, space, and light, weeds take the nutrients and reduce the growth of crop:- Xanthieum, Parthenium, etc.
Methods to control weeds: 1. Mechanical methods by:- weeding with narrow or hands
2. Prevented Methods:- Eg. Timely sowing of crops
Insects pets:  Generally insects pest attack the plants as follows:
1. They cut the root, stem, and leaf eg. shoot bores
Pests can be controlled in many ways:
Use of resistant variety => summer plouyiency
Crop diseases: Disease in plants are caused by pathogens, virus, fungi, protozoa
=> These methods are present in the soil, water, air, etc.
Controlling methods: Use of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, etc.
=>Mechanical removal of weeds
Storage of grams: During storage of grains high losses can occur. Factors responsible for such loses are as follows:
  • Biotic factor: Fungi, insects, bacteria, etc.
  • Abiotic factor: Mixture, temperature etc.
Effects of these factors on grains:
  • Loss in weight
  • Poor germinative capacity
  • Discoloration of the products
Some preventive and control major during storage are the following:
  1. Cleaning of the products before storage.
  2. Duration of grains under sunlight before storage
  3. Foundation should be drawn to kill pests.
Animal Husbandry: It is the scientific management of lives took in which rearing, feeding, breeding Disease control and situation.
=> Eg. Cow, Goat, Sheep, etc

Needs of Animal Husbandry

  • It is required to meet the increasing demands of animals pests good like milk, meat, eggs, etc.
  • Animal husbandry gives the proper guidelines for cattle management.
Cattle Farming: In India, cattle farming is done for two purposes, milk and labor for agricultural work.
=> Cattles in India belong to two different species. Eg. Bos indicus/Cow, Bos bubulis( Buffaloes)
=> On the basis of work done by cattle, they can be divided into 2 categories: Mileh
Animals: There are milk-producing females like Sahiwal, Gir, etc.
Draught Animals: These are used to labor work on farm eg. Malvi, Nagri, etc.
Breeds of cattle: Indigenous local breed: They are selected because of their high resistance to disease eg. Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, etc.
Exotic breed: They are selected because of their long location period. eg. Jersey

Farm management for cattle:

  • Selection of good breed.
  • They should be fed in a scientific manner.
  • Regular inspection and keeping of proper records.
  • Cattles should be housed well.
  • Storage and transport of milk of its products.


External Parasites: They live on the skin and cause skin disease. eg. ice, mites etc.
Internal Parasites: They live in the stomach and intestine of cells. eg: foot month diseases, cowpox, anthrax, etc.
Poultry farming: The term poultry means rearing of domesticated birds like geese, turkey, hens, etc.
  • Poultry birds are reared for meat purpose
  • The female fowls reared for eggs are called lawyers.
  • Poultary product are rich sources of protein and fats for good health.
  • India stands 6th place in poultary farming in the world.

Poultary farming management:

  • Selection of disease free breeds
  • Housing should be safe with proper nutrients
  • Proper food should be provided
  • Health care and hygiene of poultary bird is mandatory.
Fish Production: Rearing catching and selling of fish, crabs, lobster, etc.
  • Some common fresh water fish and Dilsa, shark, sardiness
  • Blue revolution increased production of fish
  • 7500 km is the costline area of India.

Economic Importance of Pisciculture:
  • Fish liver oil is great for vitamin A.
  • It has an important place in Indian economy
  • They are also used as medicines
Polyculture: Fish production by cultivation a single species which gives a low yield but highest coast is called polyculture.
Bee Keeping
  • It is also known as apiculture or bee-culture
  • It includes the maintaince of beehive of honeybees
  • Apiculture is the method of recurring, care and management of honeybee.

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